Perchlorate (ClO4 -) is used as an oxidizer for rocket fuel, fireworks, matches, air bags, and other mechanisms requiring enhanced explosions. Because perchlorate is extremely hydrophilic, it leaches into ground water and is eventually found in drinking water supplies. Public health is the primary reason agencies regulate perchlorate. Severe effects of perchlorate ingestion are hypothyroidism, goiter, and aplastic anemia. The objectives of this study were isolate areas of perchlorate occurrence and compare costs of government sanctioned compliance methods. Two removal strategies meet the best available technology (BAT) criteria for perchlorate, single pass ion exchange and biological fluidized bed reactor. The former is the preferred method due to issues with possible pathogenic bacteria for the latter. Another compliance option is blending with a fresh water source. Costs were compared for ion exchange and blending for each of the water sources in each of two public water systems. The study compared the relative prices of blending and ion exchange over a twenty-year period and found that in the $60/acre-ft case, the inflation adjusted total cost of blending was $9,595,263 for Pomona and $15,152,463 for Riverside. For the average $250/acre-ft case, the inflation adjusted total cost of blending was $33,814,300 for Pomona and $56,842,972 for Riverside. In the high estimate, $500/acre-ft, the inflation adjusted total cost of blending was $65,681,455 for Pomona and $111,698,906 for Riverside. The inflation adjusted total cost for ion exchange was $41,411,187 for Pomona and $55,631,907 for Riverside. Thus, depending on the cost scenario used the costs determine varied recommendations.
perchlorate, ground water, treatment options
Nolan, Emma O.. "Cost Comparison of Perchlorate Treatment Options." (2008). http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/wr_sp/86