The study showed that average temperature has increased from 0.6 to 0.980 C over the last 30 years and precipitation is characterized by large inter-annual variability with substantial decrease in amount over the last five years. The annual temperature increasing trend followed 0.055>0.0455>0.035>0.02 0C yr-1 from Middle Mountain, Siwlik, Himalayan and Teari regions respectively. More than 80 percent HHs responded that they have perceived increased temperature and expressed low amount snowfall in High mountain and rainfall in Mid mountain and Terai region over the last five years. Low amount of snow fall in the Himalayan region affected to the Nomad groups due low grass available to feed their livestock. Furthermore, local collector reported that there was lower availability of the medicinal plant such as Nirmasi and Jimbu due to low precipitation in the High mountain region. Similarly, more than 75 % respondent explored that monsoon has started one or two weeks later and increased the more number of drought days in the Mid-mountain and Terai. Study found that there was also decreased in water sources, ground water, and increased siltation and sedimentation in the downstream Terai region. Furthermore, change in flowering and fruiting time in some species, increased invade species like Agerative spp, Lantana camera in the farm land as well as forest land. Adaptation measures such as use of water source, community forest management, planting trees and grasses in the farm land, crop diversification were practiced by local people in their farm land as well as communal land. Natural resource degradation, poverty are already severe problems in this region, and there will be more severe problems in future if present scenario continues, particularly because small farmers do not have adequate resources to adopt to cope with CC impact. Study showed that Mid-mountain region is less vulnerable through climate change than other regions. Furthermore, no any policies and programs have been formulated for adaptation strateragy in this region. It is suggested that policy and program should formulate holistic approach and develop low cost technology for adaption to CC impact and improve livelihood of the local communities.
Tiwari, Krishna R.; Kashab D. Awasthi; Mohan K. Balla; and Bishal K. Sitaula. "Local people's perception on Climate Change, its impact and adaptation practices in Himalaya to Terai regions of Nepal." (2010). http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/nsc_research/48