Introduction of Ancient Monuments Preservation Act in 2013 B.S. (1956 AD) marked the provision of modern concept of heritage conservation in Nepal. UNESCOs mission to restore the Hanuman Dhoka Durbar in the 1970s was the first major international assistance for heritage conservation in Nepal. The enlisting of seven different sites from Kathmandu valley including 3 Durbar Squares, Pashupatinath, Bouddha, Changu Narayan and Swoyambhu in the UNESCO's World Heritage Sites brought Nepal to international attention in heritage conservation arena. Along with nature conservation and biodiversity conservation, cultural heritage conservation has been of interest to many national and international agencies. It is also linked with tourism and development besides the primary intention of preserving cultural and historic heritage. However, much needs to be done with regards to promulgation of effective policies and institutional frameworks to address various challenges. There is a pressing need to balance conflicting interests between different stake holders, for example — tourism agencies and the local entrepreneurs, donor agencies and government institutions, conservation works and development projects, and so on. Sometimes foreign technical assistance — that often comes along with the primary financial assistance — needs to be critically evaluated. Department of Archaeology, the central government institution in-charge of cultural heritage conservation in the country and powered by the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, lacks adequate resources and mechanisms to oversee projects and to take care of heritage sites throughout the country. Even within heritage sites in the Kathmandu valley, some conflicts among different stakeholders — particularly between the DoA and local residents are observed. The complications of management of world heritage sites in Kathmandu valley was criticized by international agencies like UNESCO resulting in enlisting the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Sites in the 'endangered list' in 2003 which was recently been delisted. Often the underlined conservation approach in these policies is contested by residents of heritage zones. The conservation approach in Nepal — most of which is adapted from international frameworks mostly originating in different contexts abroad - needs to be evaluated in local cultural contexts. Responding to Nepal's diverse geographical and cultural contexts, the conservation policy in Nepal needs to count on local cultural institutions, cultural practices and economic bases.'
Chapagain, Neel Kamal. "Heritage Conservation in Nepal: Policies, Stakeholders and Challenges." (2008). http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/nsc_research/26