We present a generalization of Benford’s law for the first significant digit. This generalization is based on keeping two terms of the Fourier expansion of the probability density function of the data in the modular logarithmic domain. We prove that images in the Discrete Cosine Transform domain closely follow this generalization. We use this property to propose an application in image steganalysis, namely, detecting that a given image carries a hidden message.
IEEE International Conference on Image Processing
DCT, Fourier series, setaganalysis
Abdallah, Chaouki T.; Greg L. Heileman; and Fernando Perez-Gonzalez. "BENFORD’S LAW IN IMAGE PROCESSING." IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (2007): 405-408. doi:10.1109/ICIP.2007.4378977.